The Termophilous Wood

Due to the action of man, only small areas of this type of wood survive in Valtellina; it has been replaced with vines and other crops. The trees which compose it, oak, ash and hornbeam, prefer particularly warm dry climates, and adapt to poorly developed soils. The undergrowth contains abundant shrubs, such as cornel, alder-buckthorn and barberry; common herbaceous plants are wood anemone, violet, epatica and pulmonaria.
In this environment, an ECOTONE between wood and meadow/wood may be observed. An ecotone is a boundary zone between two ecosystems, in which there is a partial overlap between the biological communities of each ecosystem.

Buzzard (Buteo buteo)

A diurnal bird of prey which may easily be identified by its flight silhouette, distinguished by wide wings, a large round tail and a very short neck.
It nests on rock faces, in trees and on irregular ground, and eats small mammals, beetles and small birds.

Jay (Garrulus glandarius)

A diurnal bird with rather long beak, rarely seen far from trees. It usually nests in copses.

Large Red Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major)

A diurnal climbing bird with a chisel-shaped beak, which it uses to search tree-trunks for insect larvae. It nests in cavities that it digs itself.

Wood Mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus)

A nocturnal rodent which makes its nest in underground galleries or cavities between tree roots; it lives on acorns, beech-nuts and hazelnuts, as well as seedlings and buds in spring.

Oak Longhorn Beetle (Cerambyx cerdo)

A nocturnal insect which lives in oak woods and is attracted by the sap which oozes from wounds on the trunk of these trees.

Hazel Dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius)

A nocturnal rodent which hibernates from October until April in underground burrows and generally nests in shrubs during the summer. Hazelnuts are a main component of its diet.

Beech Marten (Martes foina)

A nocturnal mustelid which eats birds and small mammals, although in autumn it may add wild fruits and berries to this diet. It may make its lair in hollow trees, rocky crevices or old buildings.

Oak Leaf-Roller
(Attelabus nitens)

A plant-eating insect found mainly in broad-leaved mesophyte woods, especially on oaks.

Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus)
Downy Oak (Quercus pubescens)
Hazel (Corylus avellana)